There's a paper that has just come out called "Taxing Finance", written by Geoff Gottlieb who is an economist, and two IMF staff members - Gregorio Impavido and Anna Ivanova. You can download a pdf version of the document here.
They start by stating that during the 2007-8 financial crisis "governments in North America and Europe spent an average of 3 to 5 percent of GDP to support"... "to stave off a systemwide financial collapse". And they go on to discuss four different tax instruments that are currently being used to recover these sums.
- A financial stability contribution which would be a simple levey on a financial institutions balance sheet
- A financial transaction tax (FTT) that can be levied on the value of specific financial transactions such as equity trading
- A financial activity tax that can be applied to the sum of an institution's profits and remuneration
- A reform of corporate income tax to reduce leverage in the financial sector